Explore further More information: Sex-Specific Adaptation Drives Early Sex Chromosome Evolution in Drosophila, Science 20 July 2012: Vol. 337 no. 6092 pp. 341-345. DOI: 10.1126/science.1225385ABSTRACTMost species’ sex chromosomes are derived from ancient autosomes and show few signatures of their origins. We studied the sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda, where a neo-Y chromosome originated only approximately 1 million years ago. Whole-genome and transcriptome analysis reveals massive degeneration of the neo-Y, that male-beneficial genes on the neo-Y are more likely to undergo accelerated protein evolution, and that neo-Y genes evolve biased expression toward male-specific tissues—the shrinking gene content of the neo-Y becomes masculinized. In contrast, although older X chromosomes show a paucity of genes expressed in male tissues, neo-X genes highly expressed in male-specific tissues undergo increased rates of protein evolution if haploid in males. Thus, the response to sex-specific selection can shift at different stages of X differentiation, resulting in masculinization or demasculinization of the X-chromosomal gene content. Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The X and Y chromosomes in the fruit fly are, like the human X and Y chromosomes, vastly different in size and base sequence. In humans the chromosome pair is thought to have begun to evolve about 200 million years ago from an original closely matched pair of autosomal (non-sex) chromosomes. At present the Y chromosome contains only around 50 genes, while the much larger X chromosome contains about 1,000. In most species the evolution from autosome to sex chromosome occurred so long ago their evolution is difficult to track because there are few remnants of their origins.The research team, Assistant Professor Doris Bachtrog and Dr. Qi Zhou of the Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, decided to try to shed some light on sex chromosome evolution by studying the genome of Drosophila miranda flies, in which “neo-X” and “neo-Y” chromosomes first appeared when the Y chromosome fused with an autosome only about one million years ago. In a related species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, no fusion occurred, and so by comparing the genomes of the two species, the researchers were able to demonstrate how the X and Y chromosomes have evolved in D. miranda.According to Bachtrog, when the neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes formed, about 3,000 genes were sex-linked, with female flies having two copies of neo-X and male flies having one copy each of neo-Y and neo-X. In the million years since the fusion, the Y chromosome shows massive degeneration, with over a third of the neo-Y genes having lost their function. The degeneration was already known to occur, but Prof. Bachtrog said the speed at which it had occurred was surprising.Along with genes that have lost their function, other genes on the Y chromosome have evolved to be beneficial to males and expressed in specifically male tissues such as the prostate gland and testes. A similar evolution is also occurring on the X chromosome, on which genes expressed in female tissues are becoming more dominant. The process of the genes becoming more beneficial to females is thought to take longer on the X chromosome because males also contain a copy of the X, leading to a slower distribution of these genes than in the Y, which is only found in males. The evolution of the X chromosome is not only slower, but includes larger events, such as incorporation of genes from other chromosomes into the X.Bachtrog pointed out that in fruit flies some sex chromosomes have reverted to autosomes, and it is also possible that in Drosophila species the Y chromosome could eventually disappear altogether, and another mechanism for determining sex could then evolve. (Phys.org) — Fruit flies are commonly used in genetics research because their lifespan is short, they are easy to breed in the laboratory, and mutants are widely available. There are about 1,500 known species. Now a new study of one of these species of fruit fly has tracked the evolution of a pair of sex chromosomes that appeared only around a million years ago. Scheme of a Chromosome. (1) Chromatid. One of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. (2) Centromere. The point where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm (4) Long arm. In accordance with the display rules in Cytogenetics, the short arm is on top. Image: Wikipedia. © 2012 Phys.org Citation: Sex chromosome evolution tracked in fruit fly (2012, July 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-sex-chromosome-evolution-tracked-fruit.html The story of X — evolution of a sex chromosome
In the article Schekman claims that scientific research is being “disfigured by inappropriate incentives.” He maintains that the top science journals are artificially inflating their stature by keeping the number of articles they publish low. He asserts that the practices of the top journals is causing undo difficulties with young researchers who have become convinced the only true measure of success is publication in one of the top tier journals.He continues by suggesting that because the top tier journals are run by editors, rather than scientists, it’s often the flashiest articles that get published, rather than the best or most relevant.Schekman offered hints of his dissatisfaction with the publication process when he took a position as an editor at eLife, an online science journal that prints research papers—it’s also peer reviewed, but doesn’t charge an access fee.In his article he suggests that many researchers and organizations cut corners in order to focus more clearly on the “wow” factor and as a result the number of papers being retracted by science journals is on the rise, which of course includes some very high profile instances, such as by some who are supposedly involved in the cloning of human embryos.Schekman also takes issue with the concept of paper quality being linked to impact factor (a metric that describes how often a paper is cited)—suggesting it might be as much of an indicator of a hot topic, or even an article that is simply wrong, as it is for describing good science.He concludes by adding to the chorus of supporters of open-access journals and suggests that those that offer funding for research join the effort, as they are jointly responsible for the maintenance of the flawed status-quo due to continuing to base decisions on article representation in high profile journals, rather than on overall quality of work or appearance in lower tier journals.Editors from Nature, Life and Cell have all responded to Schekman’s accusations, and for the most part have denied that their articles are popularity based—insisting that article acceptance is based strictly on science and quality. Explore further Randy Schekman. Credit: James Kegley/Wikipedia , Nature Citation: Nobel winning scientist to boycott top science journals (2013, December 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-nobel-scientist-boycott-science-journals.html , Cell This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —Randy Schekman winner (with colleagues) of the Nobel Prize this year in the Physiology or Medicine category for his work that involved describing how materials are carried to different parts of cells, has stirred up a hornet’s nest in the scientific community by publishing an article in The Guardian lashing out at three of the top science journals—Science, Cell and Nature. Flawed sting operation singles out open access journals © 2013 Phys.org Journal information: Science
More information: Glow in the Dark Matter: Observing Galactic Halos with Scattered Light, Jonathan H. Davis and Joseph Silk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 051303 – Published 4 February 2015. dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.051303 . On Arxiv: arxiv.org/abs/1410.5423ABSTRACTWe consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10−23(m/GeV) cm2 or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches. , arXiv Image: Hubble sees spiral in Serpens A light ray from the inner parts of the disc, where the luminosity is larger, can scatter with a Dark Matter particle in the halo, thereby altering its path. Hence, for example, the dashed blue light ray will appear to originate from the outer parts of the disc. This will compete with light which does not scatter on its way to Earth, as shown by the orange arrow. There will also be emission from a stellar halo and scattering from dust outside of the disc, which is not shown here. Credit: Jonathan H. Davis and Joseph Silk, Arxiv.org © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: Physical Review Letters Citation: Research pair suggests dark matter could create halos of light around galaxies (2015, February 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-pair-dark-halos-galaxies.html Scientists believe that roughly 80 percent of the total amount of matter in the universe is dark matter—this despite the fact that no one has been able to prove that it actually exists. Evidence for it is secondary—it must be there, the thinking goes, because something has to be keeping galaxies from flinging themselves apart as they spin. The problem with dark matter is that it does not reflect or react with light, making it impossible for us to see it, if it is there—at least that is the conventional view. But, Davis and Silk believe it is possible that there is an exception. In their paper they suggest it might be dark matter that is responsible for the creation of halos of light at the outer edges of galaxies.The two start with the question of just how dark is dark, when theorizing about dark matter. Just because light appears to pass straight through it, they ask, does that mean the mysterious material is perfectly dark? They wonder if it is possible that starlight may be scattered by dark matter, if so, they suggest, it might create a halo effect, similar to a lamp held aloft in fog.They offer as an example, the Pinwheel galaxy M101, which has been well studied. It has a glow around its edges but no one has been able to prove what causes that glow to come about. It could be due to dark matter, they suggest, while acknowledging that it could just as easily be due to other sources. They note that starlight at the edges of galaxies should be at their dimmest, instead there is a glow, which we are able to see because of the limited amount of light coming directly from the stars. They believe that it should be possible to prove if the glow is due to interactions with dark matter, by studying the wavelengths of light emanating from the glow and comparing it with other sources. Explore further (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers affiliated with Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris has suggested that dark matter may impact light in a way not thought of before. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, Jonathan Davis and Joseph Silk suggest that dark matter could scatter light from stars creating halos of light around galaxies. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Showcasing the work of three budding artists, Strokes from the East, a group art exhibition by Kolorbox captures the nuances and diversity of human experience across space and time. The first edition of the three day exhibition will kick off on 28 June in India Habitat Centre. The three artists, Dilip Oinam, Sandeep Jigdung and Deenabandhu Marndi, come from Manipur, Assam and Orissa, respectively. Their works shall bring alive the local milieu of their birthplace as the artists set down to paint the picturesque landscapes of Manipur, Assam and Orissa. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Known for his larger than life solitary figures, from innocent children to women and couples, Oinam’s paintings are drawn from his personal experiences and mythologies. The multi-layered, complex and painstaking treatments in his works enhance the element of drama. Currently, he is based out in Delhi and has done many group shows. Jigdung is counted as one of the contemporary faces of art in the North-East. His works predominantly reflect his experiences of the place of his birth. The vivid and dominating greens in his canvas can almost be considered as a tribute to his vision and impression of the North-East. His current series of work, again characterized by shades of green, is a celebration of both nature and human existence. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixUsing photoink, Marndi depicts people and faces, realistically. His take on art is said to have a semi-autobiographical resonance. He is believed to draw from his memories and experiences of growing up in rural Orissa to articulate his humanistic view of life.Interestingly, their lives have been influenced by experiences out of their native states. Oinam who hails from Manipur is a BFA graduate in painting from the Delhi College of Art; coming from Assam, Jigdung did his MFA from College of Art in Delhi; and Marndi settled down in Delhi after completing BFA from Orissa. All these factors play a role in their lives that are inextricably linked with their existence. Watchout for a dash of metrolife leaving its impressions on the Eastern landscapes.WHERE: India Habitat CentreWHEN: 28 -30 June, 11 am to 8 pm
The curtains were drawn up, the lights dimmed as the Premchand Thetare festival took off in the Capital. With celebrations spread over five days with ten memorable stories of the bard enacted by school children on the capital stage.The final day of the festival put forth the plays titled Namak ka Daroga and Sachchai ka Uphaar. As many as 400 children from 10 different schools of the capital came together to participate in the workshop and festival that paid homage to one of Hindi Language’s most revered writers. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’While students from Darshan Academy enacted Namak ka Daroga, which was directed by Vipur Pachauri and assisted by Mohini Sangar, students from DAV Public School Dwarka enacted Sachchai ka Uphaar, directed by Amardeep Garg and assisted by Prashant Negi.The plays were presented by students who have spent their summer vacation honing their literary and theatrical skills at a workshop organised by the Hindi Academy under the Department of Art, Culture and Languages over a month. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix’We are sure when these children go back to their schools they will stir in others a greater interest in Hindi literature and its magnificent writers,’ said Dr Harisuman Bisht, renowned author and Secretary of Hindi Academy.’Premchand is a writer without whom Hindi literature cannot be imagined or talked about. He was a writer who went deep into the roots of Indian society and presented a true picture of it. So if we want to bring our children closer to Hindi literature, the job has to begin with Premchand,’ added Bisht.The Is Greeshma Premchand Hain Bachchon Ke Sang workshop was conducted by 10 directors chosen by the Academy to pay a tribute to Premchand.
She defines one of the most poignant moment s of her life as the one where her mother got her a canvas to fit her six-year-old frame so as she could draw. For Simona Bocchi, sculptor, painter, interior-designer, jewelry designer, the desire to create forms out of nature grew in her as constantly as her creativity did. Italian by birth and essence, Bocchi has made India her home over the last few years. Bocchi was born in Monza, Italy and her initial enlightenment in her field happened in her academic sojourn through art schools in Milan, Brera, Wimbledon, finally graduating in Carrara. She came to India in 2006, invited to organise an exhibition in Delhi by the Italian Embassy. And then there was no looking back. Her experience in India brought her closer to the spiritual search she had been on forever and Udaipur soon became her home. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The lady who chiseled magic out of the famous Carrara marble pieces, now honed her art along the finesse of miniatures from Jaipur, ethereal sculptures from Khajuraho brought to stunning culmination in the magic called India. Traditional met the contemporary and through the intricate process of from being to non-being, knowing to unknowing, Bocchi weaves in each experience of creation with its uniqueness into her work. Bocchi dabbles in sculpture, in paintings and in jewelery designs where she pours herself out. She loves creating pieces, working in tandem with interior designers, that create a dialogue with the space explains Bocchi. Her work speaks to her even before the process is on its way, that is just what differentiates simple artistry from pure genius. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixBocchi says that she is fascinated by the balance of the yin and the yang and her creations stem from that like the living, breathing, pulsating mass of energy that transforms a piece of granite, marble, bronze, jute or even silver into a stunning piece of art. When I feel the masculine energy in me I like liberating it by making a piece that needs that kind of physical effort from me, on other days when I feel more feminine I prefer to use soft touches, brush tips to create what I want, explains Bocchi. She likes playing with the sense of movement in metal and wax as much as she likes the raw physicality of a piece of marble. It has happened at times that while I have been working on a particular vision, I cut away a piece of rock to expose a surface that isn’t a part of what I have perceived as my art, but it fits in so perfectly – I let it remain that way says Bocchi.This unique flexibility and adaptability to the process of creation makes every work of her as fluid as they are perfect end products of her vision. That is how nature works, she says, adding that conserving nature is one of the most vital themes for her – that is where the most famous symbol of the tree comes in for her. This fascination with the creative forces is perhaps why the theme of Shiva and Parvati inspires her so much. It is the ultimate cosmic fusion of not only the love of a man and a woman, but of creation and energy, she says. This fascination has transformed into her creation – Shiva Shakti. Bocchi’s spiritual growth is intricately woven into her India chapter. While she was always interested in the inner universe, her thoughts found form in India, through her travels and her work. She made it a point to visit the Kumbh Mela, in India answers you seek are right there, the people are more open, you come far closer to the real sense of spirituality here than anywhere in the world she says. Currently working on a personal exhibition scheduled for next year and at the same time concentrating on her book, Bocchi has come from the land of renaissance to the land of spirituality and like the indomitable force of nature, her art keeps flowing and growing.
There was an Anarkali (Madhubala) and then there was a Begum Para (Madhuri Dixit-Nene). What is common in them is the exquisite jewellery, a sharara worth crores, pines for their beloved and a huge haveli to perform in. Do not miss out on the amazing lights, candles, decorations, and all that jazz…we were glad when we found out about it and we hope you’d be too, that Zarina Begum, the only artist from the time of Mallika-e-Gazal Begum Akhtar is performing in our very city. Yes, yes. You’ll get to see this stuff LIVE! Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Zarina Begum is one of the last living disciples of ghazal maestro Begum Akhtar. Since Begum Akhtar was the pupil of Gulam Hazrat for a long time, therefore her singing shows the same quality. After the demise of Ustad, Zarina Begum received her remaining training from Begum Akhtar. Begum Akhtar had a quality of never teaching her students through speaking but through singing. This is the reason that the pupils of Begum Akhtar sing in her style. Zarina Begum is one of them. She is not only perfect in ghazal but also in thumri, dadra, and tappa. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixTo create awareness about Zarina Begum’s work and archive the Awadhi ghazals, Manjari Chaturvedi, a pioneer of her dance – Sufi Kathak, is organising a talk. Titled The Last Song Of Awadh, the event will start with the screening of an excerpt from New Delhi-based film-maker Saba Dewan’s documentary The Other Song, which showcases Zarina Begum and her work. The screening will be followed by a discussion by, among others, music enthusiast and scholar Vikram Lall, thumri singer Kumud Diwan, journalist Prem Shankar Jha, the erstwhile nawab of Mehmudabad, Mehmudabad Amir Naqi Khan, and theatre personality Aamir Raza Husain. At the end, Zarina Begum will perform along with Chaturvedi. You don’t wanna miss this one!When: 23 May, 6:30 pm onwardsWhere: For lectures, films and performances- Auditorium, Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts, Janpath
The 39-year-old Academy award-winning actor, who stars as Lady Macbeth opposite Michael Fassbender in the titular role in the feature film adaptation of the Shakespeare play, said she pushed to her complete physical and mental limits for the role, reported New York Post.“When I start a movie I usually freak out …
She reveals to Millennium Post that she is super excited about showing the country’s cultural heritage to her sons and she hopes to make this trip the best experience for her family.What are the activities that you indulge in(other than music) when you visit different countries to perform?I love how much I have travelled as I learned through travelling when I was a child and teenager. I had very rich life experiences at a young age and learned how to interact with people from all cultures with ease and comfort. I would love my son to have that as well, but I certainly want to balance that to the best of my ability with a solid base he can call home. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Now that you are performing in India after two years, How do you expect the crowd to react? It’s been a long gap of two years since I last performed in India, because I was heavily pregnant with Mo (Mohan) last winter and therefore didn’t come to visit. Naturally I’m very much looking forward to the concerts, as playing in India is always a special experience. We will be taking a holiday together over New Year’s and I look forward to showing Zubin many things about our country and culture, as at nearly five years old he is now old enough to create memories and understand so much more. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixYou are an internationally recognised classical musician after your late father. Do you think a musician requires more recognition especially when the art is left with few noble hands? How does this recognition make you feel? I believe honesty and integrity are paramount to making music of value. Everyone has something unique to offer the world, and as an artist if I can tap into that internal core when I make my music, then I am bringing something of value into the world. You are carrying the legacy of your late father. Does this responsibility make you emotionally or creatively vulnerable? And in your personal space, do you take decisions in life with his essence or thought in mind? One thing my parents were really smart about when I was growing up was avoiding letting me feel too much pressure as it’s difficult enough to be disciplined enough to commit to learn the sitar or any skill set properly and with the right frame of mind. Also, my father was never harsher on me to prove a point to other students that he’s not favouring me either because that’s not who he is as a person. For him, the commitment is yours for you to take responsibility of. Without that personal commitment, there’s no real understanding of the art form.What is your schedule like and how do you prepare for a concert? Any special routines? I enjoy my routine before a show as it calms me and helps me prepare. I do a thorough sound check with the band and then spend an hour or so doing stretches and hand warmups, getting dressed and putting on makeup. Just the act of sitting at a makeup table alone can be a nice quiet time to think, before the frenetic activity on stage. What kind of music do you listen in your spare time? My music taste is quite eclectic and diverse. I enjoy a wide range from both Indian and Western classical to alternative artists like Bjork, electronica from the Chemical Brothers and world music such as Tinariwem.Tell us about your new studio and the experience of recording the album Home. Oh, I can’t say how pleased I am to have my own studio! It’s totally changed the way I work, both on Home and on the next album I’m working on. It’s so freeing to have my own space and to feel comfortable and casual whilst recording. The need arose in recent years as a parent, to be able to work from home more. However, writing and trying to create whilst surrounded by the noise and chaos of young children is very difficult! Having my own studio at home is a dream, as I have a totally sound-proof room I can escape to when I need to write, and I have an impeccable room to record in. My studio was built with a team of experts to record the sitar at the highest level possible, and I’m very happy with the results.
Even though a great deal of effort is being done to sustain the rich Indian heritage and culture; much more remains to be done. And while Indian handlooms are being celebrated and adopted the world over, the weavers in our country are in a pitiable state. The reasons are plenty – meagre income, middlemen cornering all profits and not enough takers in the market. With the next generation bidding adieu to weaving as a livelihood option – beautiful, hand woven sarees are going to be relics of the past. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfDespite the fact that India has a long heritage of handloom weaving that is distinctly unique and largest in the world, it is only recently that the government started paying attention to the myriad hand-woven ‘Made In India’ fabrics. Several government and private entities are coming up with their own versions of hand-woven or handloom fabrics giving it a modern makeover to make it appealing to the present generation. Some are into manufacturing and selling these fabrics to newer market while others adopt innovative strategies to promote the ethnicity and the many facets of culturally rich India. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveOne such platform – devised by DLF Place Saket – is ‘Weaves of India.’ The month-long festival, which will go on until August 15, will showcase traditional fabrics from across the nation.As you enter the mall, in the western court of the mall, you will get to see a unique installation, decorated by various accessories used in fabric-making. Spools of thread, measuring tapes, a button tower, are all exaggerated to create an ethnic ambience. Turn towards the eastern court and you will find a quirky point with turbaned rural balloons and colourful thread designs. Beautiful and creative installations will take you to the main place where weavers from several states have set up stalls to display their products – from lavish looking carpets and rugs from Uttar Pradesh, camel leather bags from Rajasthan, Banarasi sarees weaved with zari and colourful resham, Assam silk scarves and sarees, to Punjabi suits and salwars – you will be left awe-struck with the authenticity and variety on offer. The plus point of this festival for many vendors is that they get a free space to sell their products.A vendor at the Punjab stall, who has come from Dilli Haat to sell phulkari work, loves the environment at the mall. He says, “I hope such festivals are held more often. The customers here don’t bargain, which is very refreshing, and we are being provided with all the facilities to make things easier.”Talking about the sale of camel leather bags, a vendor from Rajasthan stall exclaimed, “This is my first time of displaying my products in a mall. We are getting customers who understand the craft and there is a great demand. Because the event is promoting handicrafts, it is exciting to see people to come and see the collection.”As DLF Place Saket is trying to promote ethnic wear and the various fabrics of India – the premium brands in the clothing industry have also participated. While Ritu Kumar is offering three brands under one roof for its customers in DLF Place Saket, Anita Dongre – with the motive of promoting cottage industries – offers the best of Banaras silk, mal fabric, Khadi and hand-woven designer pieces. The good news is that these designer brands come at a price tag that is reasonable.From installations, knowledge sharing zones to exhibition and sale kiosks, giveaways, souvenirs as well as regional entertainment, the mall promises myriad ways of reconnecting with our rich legacy and diversity through Indian weaves and ethnic wear.With Teej and Raksha Bandhan falling in the month of July and August respectively, DLF Place Saket will be adorned with stalls and installations, drawing inspiration from these festivals. And days before Independence Day, the mall will be organising several functions and stalls to keep the fervour alive.